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Conversion "Therapy" Laws

Conversion "therapy" laws prohibit licensed mental health practitioners from subjecting LGBTQ minors to harmful conversion "therapy" practices that attempt to change their sexual orientation or gender identity. These laws do not restrict the practice among religious providers. For an in-depth analysis of these laws, please read our LGBT Policy Spotlight Report: Conversion Therapy Bans. For additional information, please contact the National Center for Lesbian Rights or The Trevor Project.
United States Map
Washington New York U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico Guam Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands American Samoa New Hampshire Vermont Virginia Pennsylvania New York Maine West Virginia Ohio Kentucky Indiana Michigan Illinois Wisconsin North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Georgia Florida Mississippi Missouri Arkansas Louisiana Iowa Minnesota Oklahoma Kansas Nebraska South Dakota North Dakota Texas 33 Colorado Wyoming Montana Idaho Arizona Utah Nevada Oregon California Hawaii Alaska Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaware Maryland Washington D.C. New Hampshire Vermont
  • State law bans conversion therapy for minors (20 states, 0 territories + D.C.)
  • State partially bans conversion therapy for minors (5 states, 1 territory)
  • State is in federal judicial circuit with a preliminary injunction currently preventing enforcement of conversion therapy bans (3 states, 0 territories)
  • No state law or policy (22 states, 4 territories)
*NOTE: In November 2020, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals issued a ruling preventing the enforcement of conversion "therapy" bans in that circuit (Alabama, Florida, Georgia). This map will be updated as that case continues.
*NOTE:  States with green stripes are those that have taken state-level action to partially restrict the practice of conversion "therapy," though these states do not fully ban the practice. See the "State-by-State Statutes" for additional information. 

Recommended citation:
Movement Advancement Project. "Equality Maps: Conversion Therapy Laws."
https://www.lgbtmap.org/equality-maps/conversion_therapy. Accessed 10/28/2021.

Percent of Adult LGBTQ Population Covered by Laws

*Note: These percentages reflect estimates of the LGBTQ adult population living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Estimates of the LGBTQ adult population in the five inhabited U.S. territories are not available, and so cannot be reflected here.

48%

48 % of LGBTQ population lives in states that ban conversion therapy for minors

9%

9 % of LGBTQ population lives in states that partially bans conversion therapy for minors

11%

11 % of LGBTQ population lives in states in federal judicial circuit with a preliminary injunction currently preventing enforcement of conversion therapy bans

32%

32 % of LGBTQ population lives in states with no laws or policies banning conversion therapy for minors

Conversion "therapy" laws prohibit licensed mental health practitioners from subjecting LGBTQ minors to harmful conversion "therapy" practices that attempt to change their sexual orientation or gender identity. These laws do not restrict the practice among religious providers. For an in-depth analysis of these laws, please read our LGBT Policy Spotlight Report: Conversion Therapy Bans. For additional information, please contact the National Center for Lesbian Rights or The Trevor Project.

States in dark green reflect states with state-wide bans, where 100% of the state population is protected. States with green stripes have taken state-level action to partially ban conversion "therapy" (see more below the map). States with orange pins reflect states with local-level bans only, and the orange pin shows the percent of the state population protected by local ordinances. If a state is beige and has no pin, then there are no local or state bans against conversion therapy, and therefore 0% of the state population is protected from this harmful practice. 
United States Map
  • Percent of the state population protected from conversion therapy
  • State is in federal judicial circuit with a preliminary injunction currently preventing enforcement of conversion therapy bans (3 states, 0 territories)
  • Percent of the state population protected from conversion therapy by local ordinances
*NOTE: In November 2020, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals issued a ruling preventing the enforcement of conversion "therapy" bans in that circuit (Alabama, Florida, Georgia). This map will be updated as that case continues.
*NOTE: States with green stripes are those that have taken state-level action to partially restrict the practice of conversion "therapy," though these states do not fully ban the practice. See the "State-by-State Statutes" for additional information. If a state partially bans the practice and also has local level ordinances that fully ban the practice (e.g., Wisconsin), the percent of the population that is fully protected is shown in the orange pin. If a state partially bans the practice and has no orange pin, that means there are currently no local ordinances that fully ban the practice.  

Recommended citation:
Movement Advancement Project. "Equality Maps: Conversion Therapy Laws." https://www.lgbtmap.org/equality-maps/conversion_therapy. Accessed 10/28/2021.

Alabama

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected


State is in federal judicial circuit with ruling preventing the enforcement of conversion "therapy" bans
State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Anchorage City-Borough (Unified)

Alaska

Conversion Therapy 40% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

1 county out of 18 has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

0 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Anchorage City-Borough (Unified)

American Samoa

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Pima County

Arizona

Conversion Therapy 15% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

1 county out of 15 has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

0 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Pima County

Arkansas

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

California

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Denver

Colorado

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Connecticut

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Delaware

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

District of Columbia

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Bay Harbor Islands
  • Boca Raton
  • Boynton Beach
  • Delray Beach
  • El Portal
  • Fort Lauderdale
  • Gainesville
  • Greenacres
  • Key West
  • Lake Worth Beach
  • Miami
  • Miami Beach
  • North Bay Village
  • Oakland Park
  • Riviera Beach
  • Tallahassee
  • Wellington
  • West Palm Beach
  • Wilton Manors
  • Alachua County
  • Broward County
  • Palm Beach County

Florida

Conversion Therapy 21% of population formerly
protected


State is in federal judicial circuit with ruling preventing the enforcement of conversion "therapy" bans

City and County Numbers:

3 counties out of 67 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

19 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Bay Harbor Islands
  • Boca Raton
  • Boynton Beach
  • Delray Beach
  • El Portal
  • Fort Lauderdale
  • Gainesville
  • Greenacres
  • Key West
  • Lake Worth Beach
  • Miami
  • Miami Beach
  • North Bay Village
  • Oakland Park
  • Riviera Beach
  • Tallahassee
  • Wellington
  • West Palm Beach
  • Wilton Manors
  • Alachua County
  • Broward County
  • Palm Beach County

Georgia

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected


State is in federal judicial circuit with ruling preventing the enforcement of conversion "therapy" bans

Guam

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Hawaii

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Idaho

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Illinois

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Indiana

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Davenport

Iowa

Conversion Therapy 3% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 0 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

1 city has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Davenport
State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Lawrence
  • Prairie Village
  • Roeland Park

Kansas

Conversion Therapy 4% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 105 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

3 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Lawrence
  • Prairie Village
  • Roeland Park
State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Covington
  • Lexington-Fayette County
  • Louisville-Jefferson County

Kentucky

Conversion Therapy 25% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

2 counties out of 120 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

1 city has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Covington
  • Lexington-Fayette County
  • Louisville-Jefferson County

Louisiana

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Maine

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Maryland

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Massachusetts

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Ann Arbor
  • Berkley
  • East Lansing
  • Ferndale
  • Huntington Woods
  • Madison Heights
  • Royal Oak

Michigan

Conversion Therapy 3% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 83 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

7 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Ann Arbor
  • Berkley
  • East Lansing
  • Ferndale
  • Huntington Woods
  • Madison Heights
  • Royal Oak
State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Bloomington
  • Duluth
  • Minneapolis
  • Red Wing
  • Robbinsdale
  • St. Paul
  • West St. Paul
  • Winona

Minnesota

Conversion Therapy 17% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 0 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

8 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Bloomington
  • Duluth
  • Minneapolis
  • Red Wing
  • Robbinsdale
  • St. Paul
  • West St. Paul
  • Winona

Mississippi

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Columbia
  • Kansas City
  • North Kansas City
  • St. Louis

Missouri

Conversion Therapy 15% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 115 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

4 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Columbia
  • Kansas City
  • North Kansas City
  • St. Louis

Montana

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Lincoln

Nebraska

Conversion Therapy 15% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 93 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

1 city has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Lincoln

Nevada

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

New Hampshire

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

New Jersey

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

New Mexico

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Albany
  • New York City
  • Rochester
  • Albany County
  • Erie County
  • Ulster County
  • Westchester County

New York

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

North Carolina

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

North Dakota

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Northern Mariana Islands

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Athens
  • Cincinnati
  • Columbus
  • Dayton
  • Kent
  • Lakewood
  • Toledo

Ohio

Conversion Therapy 15% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 88 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

7 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Athens
  • Cincinnati
  • Columbus
  • Dayton
  • Kent
  • Lakewood
  • Toledo
State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Norman

Oklahoma

Conversion Therapy 3% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 77 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

1 city has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Norman

Oregon

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Allentown
  • Bellefonte Borough
  • Bethlehem
  • Doylestown Borough
  • Erie
  • Middletown Township (Bucks County)
  • Newtown Township (Bucks County)
  • Pittsburgh
  • Reading
  • Scranton
  • State College
  • Yardley Borough
  • Allegheny County
  • Philadelphia City-County

Pennsylvania

Conversion Therapy 26% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

2 counties out of 67 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

12 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Allentown
  • Bellefonte Borough
  • Bethlehem
  • Doylestown Borough
  • Erie
  • Middletown Township (Bucks County)
  • Newtown Township (Bucks County)
  • Pittsburgh
  • Reading
  • Scranton
  • State College
  • Yardley Borough
  • Allegheny County
  • Philadelphia City-County

Puerto Rico

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Rhode Island

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Columbia

South Carolina

Conversion Therapy 3% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 46 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

1 city has an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Columbia

South Dakota

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Tennessee

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Texas

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

U.S. Virgin Islands

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Utah

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected


*Utah's state and local nondiscrimination protections only cover employment and housing. Utah's protections exclude public accommodations.

Vermont

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

Virginia

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Seattle

Washington

Conversion Therapy 100% of population protected

State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Charleston
  • Morgantown

West Virginia

Conversion Therapy 4% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 55 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

2 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Charleston
  • Morgantown
State has law that covers sexual orientation and gender identity
Cities and counties prohibiting employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • Appleton
  • Cudahy
  • Eau Claire
  • Glendale
  • Kenosha
  • Madison
  • Milwaukee
  • Racine
  • Sheboygan
  • Shorewood
  • Sun Prairie
  • Superior
  • West Allis

Wisconsin

Conversion Therapy 24% of population protected


City and County Numbers:

0 counties out of 72 have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.

13 cities have an ordinance banning licensed mental health practitioners from using conversion "therapy" on minors.


City and County Listing:

  • Appleton
  • Cudahy
  • Eau Claire
  • Glendale
  • Kenosha
  • Madison
  • Milwaukee
  • Racine
  • Sheboygan
  • Shorewood
  • Sun Prairie
  • Superior
  • West Allis

Wyoming

Conversion Therapy 0% of population protected

Key
  • State has this law State bans conversion therapy
  • State has this law State partially bans conversion therapy
  • State does not have this law State is in judicial circuit with ruling preventing enforcement of conversion therapy bans
State Conversion Therapy Law Year Passed
  Citations
Alabama State does not have this law
Alaska
American Samoa
Arizona
Arkansas
California State has this law 2012
Colorado State has this law 2019
Connecticut State has this law 2017
Delaware State has this law 2018
District of Columbia State has this law 2014
Florida State does not have this law
Georgia State does not have this law
Guam
Hawaii State has this law 2018
Idaho
Illinois State has this law 2015
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine State has this law 2019
Maryland State has this law 2018
Massachusetts State has this law 2019
Michigan State has this law 2021
Minnesota State has this law 2021
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada State has this law 2017
New Hampshire State has this law 2018
New Jersey State has this law 2013
New Mexico State has this law 2017
New York State has this law 2019
North Carolina State has this law 2019
North Dakota State has this law 2021
Northern Mariana Islands
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon State has this law 2015
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico State has this law 2019
Rhode Island State has this law 2017
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
U.S. Virgin Islands
Utah State has this law 2020
Vermont State has this law 2016
Virginia State has this law 2020
Washington State has this law 2018
West Virginia
Wisconsin State has this law 2021
Wyoming
Data current as of 10/27/2021
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Sexual Orientation Policy Tally

The term “sexual orientation” is loosely defined as a person’s pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to people of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or more than one sex or gender. Laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation primarily protect or harm lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. That said, transgender people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual can be affected by laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation.

Gender Identity Policy Tally

“Gender identity” is a person’s deeply-felt inner sense of being male, female, or something else or in-between. “Gender expression” refers to a person’s characteristics and behaviors such as appearance, dress, mannerisms and speech patterns that can be described as masculine, feminine, or something else. Gender identity and expression are independent of sexual orientation, and transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Laws that explicitly mention “gender identity” or “gender identity and expression” primarily protect or harm transgender people. These laws also can apply to people who are not transgender, but whose sense of gender or manner of dress does not adhere to gender stereotypes.

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