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Sexual Orientation Policy Tally

The term “sexual orientation” is loosely defined as a person’s pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to people of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or more than one sex or gender. Laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation primarily protect or harm lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. That said, transgender people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual can be affected by laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation.

Gender Identity Policy Tally

“Gender identity” is a person’s deeply-felt inner sense of being male, female, or something else or in-between. “Gender expression” refers to a person’s characteristics and behaviors such as appearance, dress, mannerisms and speech patterns that can be described as masculine, feminine, or something else. Gender identity and expression are independent of sexual orientation, and transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Laws that explicitly mention “gender identity” or “gender identity and expression” primarily protect or harm transgender people. These laws also can apply to people who are not transgender, but whose sense of gender or manner of dress does not adhere to gender stereotypes.

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Piggie Park and the High Stakes of the Masterpiece Cakeshop Case Brief

The Bottom Line

Fifty years ago, in March 1968, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a landmark ruling in Newman v. Piggie Park Enterprises. Piggie Park, a small barbeque chain that is still open today, refused to serve African American customers. The owner, a segregationist, claimed that the Civil Rights Act violated his religious freedom. In a decision handed down on March 18, 1968, the Supreme Court disagreed. Read more in this policy brief, authored by MAP for Open to All.

Recommended citation:
50 Years Ago vs. Today: Piggie Park & the High Stakes of the Masterpiece Cakeshop Case. March 2018. http://www.lgbtmap.org/file/Brief-OTA-Piggie-Park.pdf (date of access).

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