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Policy Spotlight: Hate Crime Laws Infographics




Reported Hate Crimes in the United States Are Increasing:


Reported Violent Deaths of U.S. Transgender People Are Increasing:



Fewer than Four of Every 100 Hate Crimes Are Actually Reported to the FBI:


National Crime Victimization Survey Shows Significantly More Hate Crimes Based on Sexual Orientation, Gender, and Disability Than FBI Reporting Suggests:



Nearly All States Have a Hate Crime Law, Allowing Harsher Punishments for Those Convicted of Crimes Motivated by Hate:


Most, Though Not All, State Hate Crime Laws Create Distinct Crimes Rather than Adding to General Sentencing Statutes:



All State Hate Crime Laws Enumerate Race, Ethnicity, and Religion; Most State Hate Crime Laws Also Enumerate Additional Classes:



Roughly Two-Thirds of States Have Institutional Vandalism Laws, Making it a Crime to Target Specific Types of Property Because of their Association with Protected Groups:


Eleven States’ Hate Crime Laws Allow for Additional Punishments or Consequences Beyond Imprisonment, if Convicted of a Hate Crime:



Few State Hate Crime Laws Allow for Community Service or Anti-Bias Education if Convicted of a Hate Crime, Though Only in Addition to Traditional Punishments:



Majority of States Allow for Civil Action in Response to Hate Crimes, Separate from Criminal Action:


Only Nine States’ Hate Crime Laws Include Protections or Support for Survivors of Hate Crimes:



Only Half of States Require Law Enforcement Agencies to Collect and Report Hate Crime Data:


Roughly One-Third of States Require Hate Crimes Training for Law Enforcement:


Only a Small Fraction of Law Enforcement Agencies Report Hate Crimes to the FBI:



Six States Enumerate Law Enforcement as a Protected Class in Hate Crime Laws Through So-Called “Blue Lives Matter” Amendments:



People of Color Are More Likely To Experience Hate Violence, Yet Law- Enforcement-Recorded Hate Crimes Disproportionately List Black Perpetrators:




The following infographics are drawn from the report Policy Spotlight: Hate Crime Laws, authored by the Movement Advancement Project (MAP).

The report was released in partnership with: the Anti-Defamation League, Asian Americans Advancing Justice, Equality Federation, James Byrd Jr. Center to Stop Hate at the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Jews for Racial & Economic Justice, Lambda Legal, LatinoJustice PRLDEF, Matthew Shepard Foundation, National Black Justice Coalition, National Center for Lesbian Rights, National Center for Transgender Equality, National Council of Jewish Women, National Disability Rights Network, Sikh Coalition, Southern Poverty Law Center, and the Union for Reform Judaism.

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Sexual Orientation Policy Tally

The term “sexual orientation” is loosely defined as a person’s pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to people of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or more than one sex or gender. Laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation primarily protect or harm lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. That said, transgender people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual can be affected by laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation.

Gender Identity Policy Tally

“Gender identity” is a person’s deeply-felt inner sense of being male, female, or something else or in-between. “Gender expression” refers to a person’s characteristics and behaviors such as appearance, dress, mannerisms and speech patterns that can be described as masculine, feminine, or something else. Gender identity and expression are independent of sexual orientation, and transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Laws that explicitly mention “gender identity” or “gender identity and expression” primarily protect or harm transgender people. These laws also can apply to people who are not transgender, but whose sense of gender or manner of dress does not adhere to gender stereotypes.

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