New Democracy Maps

New Report Offers Look at Lives of LGBT People of Color in Rural America, Shattering Stereotypes of Life in Rural Communities

LGBT People of Color Experience Heightened Impacts of Acceptance or Discrimination in Rural Life, Pointing to Critical Need for Nondiscrimination Protections

(September 19, 2019) Des Moines, IA—Media coverage often portrays rural America as singularly white, conservative and working-class. Yet at least 10 million people of color, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of color, call rural America home. Today, the Movement Advancement Project (MAP) released a new report, Where We Call Home: LGBT People of Color in Rural America,  which examines the unique challenges of LGBT people of color in rural America and highlights distinct experiences across different communities of color. As the second publication in the Where We Call Home series, this report details how the structural challenges of rural life amplify acceptance of or discrimination against LGBT people of color. Where We Call Home: LGBT People of Color in Rural America is released in partnership with the Equality Federation, the National Black Justice Coalition, and the National Center for Lesbian Rights. 
Rural communities have always been home to people of color and LGBT people of color, but their lives and needs are often unexamined or overlooked,” said Ineke Mushovic, executive director of the Movement Advancement Project (MAP). “LGBT people of color are more likely to live in poverty, more vulnerable to discrimination and less able to respond to its harmful effectsComprehensive nondiscrimination laws are vital to improving the lives of LGBT people of color in rural America—as is blocking and rescinding religious exemption laws that allow employers and taxpayer-funded service providers to discriminate.” 
This report offers extensive new findings on LGBT people of color in rural communities, where discrimination based on race and immigration status is compounded by discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. 

As discussed in the report findings: 

  1. People of color, including those in rural areas, are more likely than white people to identify as LGBTpeople of color comprise 42% of the national LGBT population, compared to 36% of the total U.S. population. And, LGBT people of color generally live in the same rural areas as other people of color do. For example, the U.S. South is home to nine in ten Black people who live in rural and small-town areas, and Black same-sex couples are also concentrated in the South. 
  3. LGBT people of color in rural states are especially vulnerable to discriminationOverall, rural states are significantly less likely than majority urban states to have vital nondiscrimination protections, and are also more likely to have harmful, discriminatory laws. Also, among rural states, those with worse LGBT policy climates also have higher populations of people of color, meaning LGBT people of color are especially at risk of discrimination and especially likely to lack protection against it.  

  4. LGBT people of color experience similar or higher rates of both poverty and unemployment compared to both non-LGBT people of color and white people. Additionally, rates of poverty are higher in rural areas than in urban onesso LGBT people of color in rural areas are likely at an even higher risk of experiencing poverty. 

  5. Smaller populations in rural communities mean any “difference” is more noticeable. For LGBT people of color, increased visibility as both people of color and as LGBT people in rural communities may mean further vulnerability.  

  6. When LGBT people of color in rural areas face discrimination, they may have fewer alternatives for culturally competent providers and fewer opportunities to find a job. This is especially true when businesses and service providers are given a license to discriminate. For example, many senior care providers and hospitals in rural areas are religiously affiliated. Increasing religious exemption laws may allow such providers to discriminate, even when providing taxpayer-funded services. Not only can providers then reject people simply for being LGBT, a provider with racial bias may also choose to reject LGBT people of color, claiming the rejection is because the person is LGBT, not because they are a person of color.  

  7. LGBT people of color have fewer support structures and resources that accept them both as a person of color and someone who is LGBT. The relative social and geographic isolation of rural areas can compound this problem. For example, LGBT-focused programs in rural areas, if available at all, may not fully recognize or be equipped to support people who are both LGBT and a person of color, and programs for people of color in rural areas may not be accepting of people of color who are also LGBT. 

Click here to view this as an infographic. 

“Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and same gender loving (LGBTQ/SGL) people of color are central to the fabric of rural life in America,” said David Johns, executive director of the National Black Justice Coalition (NBJC). “With little to no attention paid toward the challenges and joys of what it means to be a LGBTQ/SGL person of color living in places like the South or the rural Midwest, this report reveals the heightened risk of discrimination for those who are both LGBTQ/SGL and a person of color. This is especially salient for Black people who continue to be disproportionately impacted by the intersections of race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and location in America. NBJC is committed to ensuring the livelihood of LGBTQ/SGL people of color in rural communities, in order to close the gaps between the movements for racial justice and LGBTQ/SGL equality.” 

"LGBTQ people of color are a vital part of rural America," said Shannon Minter, Legal Director at the National Center for Lesbian Rights. "Whether they have been there for generations or are more recent migrants, LGBTQ people of color are building communities and contributing to rural economies and cultures throughout this country. Through our Rural Pride work we've had the privilege to collaborate with advocates and organizations that work with rural LGBTQ people of color. This new report highlights the importance of advocacy on issues that especially affect those targeted by the multiple and intersecting oppressions of white supremacy, class oppression, homophobia and transphobia."
"This important report shines a light on a part of our community often left out of the conversation: LGBTQ people of color living in rural communities. We know that communities with higher populations of people of color offer fewer protections for LGBTQ people but also receive less funding. We’re talking about a large number of people—at least 10 million LGBTQ people live in rural communities and one in six of those individuals are people of color,” said Rebecca Isaacs, executive director for Equality Federation. “Black, Latinx, Native American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, multiracial, and other people of color living in rural areas deserve to have meaningful policy created. We will continue to fight alongside those communities in city councils, county commissions, in state legislatures, and with federal lawmakers until all LGBTQ people are treated equally, regardless of how they look or where they live."

Where We Call Home: LGBT People of Color in Rural America concludes with recommendations for community organizations, educators, healthcare providers and policymakers to address the specific needs of LGBT people of color in rural communities. Because LGBT people of color may experience discrimination based on their sexual orientation and/or gender identity and their race or ethnicity, passing nondiscrimination protections at the federal, state, and local level is vital to ensure full participation in all aspects of life. States and the federal government should also rescind and block harmful religious exemption laws that may allow service providers and employers to legally discriminate against LGBT people. Additionally, addressing the broad structural challenges facing rural communities while also addressing the specific needs of LGBT people of color in rural areas (e.g., expanding data collection on LGBT people of color, repealing HIV criminalization laws, and more) will help to improve the quality of life LGBT people of color in rural America. 

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About MAP: MAP's mission is to provide independent and rigorous research, insight, and communications that help speed equality and opportunity for all. MAP works to ensure that all people have a fair chance to pursue health and happiness, earn a living, take care of the ones they love, be safe in their communities, and participate in civic life.  

About NBJC: The National Black Justice Coalition (NBJC) NBJC is a civil rights organization dedicated to the empowerment of Black lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and same gender loving (LGBTQ/SGL) people, including people living with HIV/AIDS. NBJC’s mission is to end racism, homophobia, and LGBTQ/SGL bias and stigma. As America’s leading national Black LGBTQ/SGL civil rights organization focused on federal public policy and grassroots organizing, NBJC has accepted the charge to lead Black families in strengthening the bonds and bridging the gaps between the movements for racial justice and LGBTQ/SGL equality. 

About NCLR: The National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) was the first national LGBTQ legal organization founded by women and brings a fierce, longstanding commitment to racial and economic justice and our community’s most vulnerable. Since 1977, NCLR has been at the forefront of advancing the civil and human rights of our full LGBTQ community and their families through impact litigation, public policy, and public education. Decades ago, NCLR led the way by establishing the first LGBTQ Immigration Project, Transgender Rights Project, Youth Project, Elder Law Project, and began working to end conversion therapy through what is now the Born Perfect campaign. NCLR also hosts regular Rural Pride convenings around the country, which provides a forum to focus on the unique needs of the rural LGBTQ community.  

About the Equality Federation: Equality Federation is the movement builder and strategic partner to state-based organizations advocating for LGBTQ people. From Equality Florida to Freedom Oklahoma to Basic Rights Oregon, we amplify the power of the state-based LGBTQ movement. 

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Sexual Orientation Policy Tally

The term “sexual orientation” is loosely defined as a person’s pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to people of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or more than one sex or gender. Laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation primarily protect or harm lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. That said, transgender people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual can be affected by laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation.

Gender Identity Policy Tally

“Gender identity” is a person’s deeply-felt inner sense of being male, female, or something else or in-between. “Gender expression” refers to a person’s characteristics and behaviors such as appearance, dress, mannerisms and speech patterns that can be described as masculine, feminine, or something else. Gender identity and expression are independent of sexual orientation, and transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Laws that explicitly mention “gender identity” or “gender identity and expression” primarily protect or harm transgender people. These laws also can apply to people who are not transgender, but whose sense of gender or manner of dress does not adhere to gender stereotypes.

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